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2020年翻譯資格考試二級筆譯實務材料二

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Ideas on Feminism Vary Depending on Culture Location

From Nairobi to Conakry, women across Africa are demanding change in attitudes towards sexual harassment, fair wages, access to land and equal opportunities for political leadership.

But they’re doing it in their own way says Gwendolyn Michael, professor of anthropology and Foreign Service at Georgetown University and author of a book on African feminism.考生如果怕自己錯過考試成績查詢的話,可以 免費預約短信提醒,屆時會以短信的方式提醒大家報名和考試時間。

“In the U.S. women often think feminism means I alone, determine what’s best for me. But African feminism is very much a different thing. It’s about how women interpret their interests and empowerment within the context of where they live and their cultural values.”

Feminism has historically had negative connotations on the African continent, says Xingu Rama Terra who teaches African feminist theory at Rhodes University in South Africa.

“Feminism one is considered to be a title that is given to middle class people or people who are white. There’s also an attachment to feminism that feminism is anti-men and anti-African cultural systems and anti-African traditional practices so in that regard there are many women who would hesitate to be identified as feminists.”

Advocating for women’s right on the basis of equality of the sexes can be intimidating for some men but American University professor Kwaku Nwamah says, “it shouldn’t be the case it starts with not being afraid of the word feminist and understanding that what’s right for our women is right for us as a society, as a continent in general.”

He says some of the problems require a shift in cultural attitudes and those take a long time, but some countries on waiting. Rwanda for example has the largest share of seats in parliament in the world held by women.

“One nice terrific example of what public policy can do to help women. They use quarters and people say what quarters diminish the role of women. No it doesn’t. Then on the end of the spectrum you see countries like Tanzania where the government says you can go to school if you pregnant.”

Dr. Michael says things are evolving on the continent.“I’d say beginning about 20 years ago I began doing a lot of, having a lot of conversations with ordinary women who had been supporting various movements, for example in South African, ANC women and what was fascinating is that these women used to say I can’t talk about feminism until we deal with getting rid of apartheid. Now what we’re seeing is that these women are parliamentarians all across the country. They are trying to get land laws changed.”

People like Kenya’s environmental political activist Juan Gauri Mathai and South Africa’s anti-apartheid activist Winnie Mandela are seen as great feminist inspirations for material.

But is being a feminist critical in the empowerment of women in General. “The simple answer for that should be would be no because many women across the decades have done work that is feminist what we would consider to be Feminists.”

She says the lack of the feminism label in some cases doesn’t negate the credibility of their work.

不同的文化背景對女性主義的認識也不盡相同

從內羅畢到科納克里,非洲各地的婦女都在要求改變對性騷擾的態度、公平的工資、獲得土地的權利以及政治領導的平等機會。

但喬治敦大學人類學和外交服務教授,同時也是一本關于非洲女權主義的書的作者格溫多林·邁克爾說,他們正在用自己的方式做這件事。

“在美國,女性通常認為女權主義意味著我一個人,決定什么對我最好。但是非洲的女權主義是完全不同的。它是關于女性如何在她們生活的地方和文化價值觀的背景下詮釋她們的興趣和賦權。”

從歷史上看,女權主義在非洲大陸具有負面含義。在南非羅茲大學教授非洲女權主義理論的辛古·拉馬·特拉(Xingu Rama Terra)說。

“女權主義有人被認為是中產階級或白人的稱號。還有一種對女權主義的依戀,女權主義是反男性的,反非洲的文化體系,反非洲的傳統習俗,所以在這方面,很多女性不愿意被認為是女權主義者。”

在性別平等的基礎上倡導女性權利對一些男性來說可能是令人生畏的,但美國大學教授夸庫·努瓦瑪(Kwaku Nwamah)說,“不應該是這樣的,開始于不害怕女權主義這個詞并且理解什么對我們的女性是正確的,對我們整個社會,整個大陸也是正確的。”

他說,有些問題需要文化態度的轉變,這需要很長時間,但有些國家還在等待。例如,盧旺達婦女在議會中所占的席位是世界上最多的。

“這是公共政策可以幫助女性的一個很好的例子。他們使用四分之一,人們說什么四分之一削弱了女性的作用。并沒有。在范圍的末端,你會看到像坦桑尼亞這樣的國家,政府說如果你懷孕了,你可以去上學。”

邁克爾(Michael)博士說,非洲大陸正在發生變化。“我想說,從大約二十年前開始,我開始做很多事情,和支持各種運動的普通女性交談,例如在南非,非洲國民大會的女性,最吸引人的是,這些女性過去常說,除非我們解決種族隔離問題,否則我不能談論女權主義,F在我們看到的是,這些婦女是全國各地的國會議員。他們正試圖修改土地法。”

肯尼亞環境政治活動家胡安·高里·馬塔伊(Juan Gauri Mathai)和南非反種族隔離活動家溫妮·曼德拉(Winnie Mandela)等人被視為偉大的女權主義素材靈感來源。

而是作為一個女權主義者,對女性賦權提出了批評。“簡單的答案應該是否定的,因為幾十年來,很多女性都做過女權主義的工作,我們認為她們是女權主義者。”

她說,在某些情況下,缺乏女權主義的標簽并不會否定他們工作的可信度。

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